RBLDNSd Blacklist Server

Hier findet man eine detaillierte Beschreibung, wie man seinen eigenen RBLDNS Server konfiguriert:

http://www.blue-quartz.com/rbl/

Credits:
Herb Rubin of Pathfinders Software.

Interface bonding CENTOS 6/7

Hier der Link zum Original: https://www.unixmen.com/linux-basics-create-network-bonding-on-centos-76-5/


What is Network bonding?

Network bonding is a method of combining (joining) two or more network interfaces together into a single interface. It will increase the network throughput, bandwidth and will give redundancy. If one interface is down or unplugged, the other one will keep the network traffic up and alive. Network bonding can be used in situations wherever you need redundancy, fault tolerance or load balancing networks.

Linux allows us to bond multiple network interfaces into single interface using a special kernel module named bonding. The Linux bonding driver provides a method for combining multiple network interfaces into a single logical “bonded” interface. The behaviour of the bonded interfaces depends upon the mode; generally speaking, modes provide either hot standby or load balancing services. Additionally, link integrity monitoring, may be performed.

Types of Network Bonding

According the to the official documentation, here is the types of network bonding modes.

mode=0 (balance-rr)

Round-robin policy: It the default mode. It transmits packets in sequential order from the first available slave through the last. This mode provides load balancing and fault tolerance.

mode=1 (active-backup)

Active-backup policy: In this mode, only one slave in the bond is active. The other one will become active, only when the active slave fails. The bond’s MAC address is externally visible on only one port (network adapter) to avoid confusing the switch. This mode provides fault tolerance.

mode=2 (balance-xor)

XOR policy: Transmit based on [(source MAC address XOR’d with destination MAC address) modulo slave count]. This selects the same slave for each destination MAC address. This mode provides load balancing and fault tolerance.

mode=3 (broadcast)

Broadcast policy: transmits everything on all slave interfaces. This mode provides fault tolerance.

mode=4 (802.3ad)

IEEE 802.3ad Dynamic link aggregation. Creates aggregation groups that share the same speed and duplex settings. Utilizes all slaves in the active aggregator according to the 802.3ad specification.

Prerequisites:

– Ethtool support in the base drivers for retrieving the speed and duplex of each slave.
– A switch that supports IEEE 802.3ad Dynamic link aggregation. Most switches will require some type of configuration to enable 802.3ad mode.

mode=5 (balance-tlb)

Adaptive transmit load balancing: channel bonding that does not require any special switch support. The outgoing traffic is distributed according to the current load (computed relative to the speed) on each slave. Incoming traffic is received by the current slave. If the receiving slave fails, another slave takes over the MAC address of the failed receiving slave.

Prerequisite:

– Ethtool support in the base drivers for retrieving the speed of each slave.

mode=6 (balance-alb)

Adaptive load balancing: includes balance-tlb plus receive load balancing (rlb) for IPV4 traffic, and does not require any special switch support. The receive load balancing is achieved by ARP negotiation. The bonding driver intercepts the ARP Replies sent by the local system on their way out and overwrites the source hardware address with the unique hardware address of one of the slaves in the bond such that different peers use different hardware addresses for the server.

In this handy tutorial let us see how to setup network bonding on CentOS 7 and CentOS 6.5. Though it was tested on CentOS, it should work on RHEL and Scientific Linux 6.x versions.

First, we will setup network bonding on CentOS 7.

1. Setting up Network Bonding on CentOS 7

Let us combine two NICs (enp0s8, and enp0s9) and make them into one NIC named bond0.

Configure Bond0 Interface

In CentOS 7, the bonding module is not loaded by default. Enter the following command as root user to enable it.

modprobe --first-time bonding

You can view the bonding module information using command:

modinfo bonding

Sample output:

filename:       /lib/modules/3.10.0-123.el7.x86_64/kernel/drivers/net/bonding/bonding.ko alias:          rtnl-link-bond author:         Thomas Davis, tadavis@lbl.gov and many others description:    Ethernet Channel Bonding Driver, v3.7.1 version:        3.7.1 license:        GPL srcversion:     E52AE00A79EA6FEFB5BF718 depends:         intree:         Y vermagic:       3.10.0-123.el7.x86_64 SMP mod_unload modversions  signer:         CentOS Linux kernel signing key sig_key:        BC:83:D0:FE:70:C6:2F:AB:1C:58:B4:EB:AA:95:E3:93:61:28:FC:F4 sig_hashalgo:   sha256 parm:           max_bonds:Max number of bonded devices (int) parm:           tx_queues:Max number of transmit queues (default = 16) (int) parm:           num_grat_arp:Number of peer notifications to send on failover event (alias of num_unsol_na) (int) parm:           num_unsol_na:Number of peer notifications to send on failover event (alias of num_grat_arp) (int) parm:           miimon:Link check interval in milliseconds (int) parm:           updelay:Delay before considering link up, in milliseconds (int) parm:           downdelay:Delay before considering link down, in milliseconds (int) parm:           use_carrier:Use netif_carrier_ok (vs MII ioctls) in miimon; 0 for off, 1 for on (default) (int) parm:           mode:Mode of operation; 0 for balance-rr, 1 for active-backup, 2 for balance-xor, 3 for broadcast, 4 for 802.3ad, 5 for balance-tlb, 6 for balance-alb (charp) parm:           primary:Primary network device to use (charp) parm:           primary_reselect:Reselect primary slave once it comes up; 0 for always (default), 1 for only if speed of primary is better, 2 for only on active slave failure (charp) parm:           lacp_rate:LACPDU tx rate to request from 802.3ad partner; 0 for slow, 1 for fast (charp) parm:           ad_select:803.ad aggregation selection logic; 0 for stable (default), 1 for bandwidth, 2 for count (charp) parm:           min_links:Minimum number of available links before turning on carrier (int) parm:           xmit_hash_policy:balance-xor and 802.3ad hashing method; 0 for layer 2 (default), 1 for layer 3+4, 2 for layer 2+3 (charp) parm:           arp_interval:arp interval in milliseconds (int) parm:           arp_ip_target:arp targets in n.n.n.n form (array of charp) parm:           arp_validate:validate src/dst of ARP probes; 0 for none (default), 1 for active, 2 for backup, 3 for all (charp) parm:           fail_over_mac:For active-backup, do not set all slaves to the same MAC; 0 for none (default), 1 for active, 2 for follow (charp) parm:           all_slaves_active:Keep all frames received on an interfaceby setting active flag for all slaves; 0 for never (default), 1 for always. (int) parm:           resend_igmp:Number of IGMP membership reports to send on link failure (int) create a bond0 configuration file as shown below.

Log in as root user.

Create bond0 configuration file:

vi /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-bond0

Add the following lines.

DEVICE=bond0 NAME=bond0 TYPE=Bond BONDING_MASTER=yes IPADDR=192.168.1.50 PREFIX=24 ONBOOT=yes BOOTPROTO=none BONDING_OPTS="mode=0 miimon=100"

Note: Here, BONDING_OPTS describes the bonding mode. In our case, we will be configuring mode0(active-active). Save and close file. 192.168.1.50 is bond0 IP address.

Configure Network interfaces

Now, we should modify both(enp0s8 & enp0s9) configuration files as shown below. First, let us start from enp0s8.

Edit file /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-enp0s8,

vi /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-enp0s8

Modify the file as shown below.

HWADDR="08:00:27:04:03:86"
TYPE="Ethernet"
BOOTPROTO="none"
DEFROUTE="yes"
PEERDNS="yes"
PEERROUTES="yes"
IPV4_FAILURE_FATAL="no"
IPV6INIT="yes"
IPV6_AUTOCONF="yes"
IPV6_DEFROUTE="yes"
IPV6_PEERDNS="yes"
IPV6_PEERROUTES="yes"
IPV6_FAILURE_FATAL="no"
NAME="enp0s8"
UUID="a97b23f2-fa87-49de-ac9b-39661ba9c20f"
ONBOOT="yes"
MASTER=bond0
SLAVE=yes

Then, Edit file /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-enp0s9,

vi /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-enp0s9

Modify the file as shown below.

HWADDR=08:00:27:E7:ED:8E
TYPE=Ethernet
BOOTPROTO=none
DEFROUTE=yes
PEERDNS=yes
PEERROUTES=yes
IPV4_FAILURE_FATAL=no
IPV6INIT=yes
IPV6_AUTOCONF=yes
IPV6_DEFROUTE=yes
IPV6_PEERDNS=yes
IPV6_PEERROUTES=yes
IPV6_FAILURE_FATAL=no
NAME=enp0s9
UUID=e2352c46-e1f9-41d2-98f5-af24b127b3e7
ONBOOT=yes
MASTER=bond0
SLAVE=yes

Save and close the files.

Now, activate the Network interfaces.

ifup ifcfg-enp0s8
ifup ifcfg-enp0s9

Now, enter the following command to make Network Manager aware the changes.

nmcli con reload

Restart network service to take effect the changes.

systemctl restart network

Test Network Bonding

Now enter the following command to check whether the bonding interface bond0 is up and running:

cat /proc/net/bonding/bond0

As you see in the above output, the bond0 interface is up and running and it is configured as active-backup(mode1) mode. In this mode, only one slave in the bond is active. The other one will become active, only when the active slave fails.

To view the list of network interfaces and their IP address, enter the following command:

ip addr

That’s it.

Configure multiple IP addresses for bond0

I want to assign multiple IP addresses to bond0 interface. What should i do? Very simple, just create an alias for the bond0 interface and assign multiple IP addresses.

Let me make it more clear. Say for example we want to assign IP address 192.168.1.151 to bond0. To create an alias for bond0, copy the existing configuration file(ifcfg-bond0) to a new configuration file(ifcfg-bond0:1).

cp /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-bond0 /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-bond0:1

Then edit the alias file /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-bond0:1,

vi /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-bond0:1

Modify the device name and IP address as shown below.

DEVICE=bond0:1
NAME=bond0
TYPE=Bond
BONDING_MASTER=yes
IPADDR=192.168.1.151
PREFIX=24
ONBOOT=yes
BOOTPROTO=none
BONDING_OPTS="mode=1 miimon=100"

Here,

  • bond0:1 – Device name
  • 192.168.1.151 – IP address of bond0:1

Save and close the file. Restart network service to take effect the saved changes.

systemctl restart network

Now list out the network interfaces and their IP address using the command:

ip addr

As you above the alias bond0:1 has been created and it’s up now.

2. Setting up Network Bonding on CentOS 6.5

Configure Bond0 Interface

First, let us create a bond0 configuration file as shown below.

Create bond0 configuration file under the above mentioned directory.

vi /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-bond0

Add the following lines.

DEVICE=bond0
BOOTPROTO=none
ONBOOT=yes
IPADDR=192.168.1.200
NETWORK=192.168.1.0
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
USERCTL=no
BONDING_OPTS="mode=1 miimon=100"

Next we have to load up the bond0 interface into the kernel. To do that, create a new file /etc/modprobe.d/bonding.conf,

vi /etc/modprobe.d/bonding.conf

Add the following line in it.

alias bond0 bonding

Save and close the file.

Configure Network interfaces

Now we should modify both(eth1 & eth2) configuration files as shown below. First, let us start from eth1.

Edit file /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth1,

vi /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth1

Modify the file as shown below.

DEVICE=eth1
MASTER=bond0
SLAVE=yes
USERCTL=no
ONBOOT=yes
BOOTPROTO=none

Then Edit file /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth2,

# vi /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth2

Modify the file as shown below.

DEVICE=eth2
MASTER=bond0
SLAVE=yes
USERCTL=no
ONBOOT=yes
BOOTPROTO=none

Save and close the files.

Enter the following command to load the bonding module.

modprobe bonding

Restart network service to take effect the changes.

service network restart

Test Network Bonding

Now enter the following command to check whether the bonding interface bond0 is up and running:

cat /proc/net/bonding/bond0

Sample output:

Ethernet Channel Bonding Driver: v3.6.0 (September 26, 2009)
Bonding Mode: fault-tolerance (active-backup)
Primary Slave: None
Currently Active Slave: eth1
MII Status: up
MII Polling Interval (ms): 100
Up Delay (ms): 0
Down Delay (ms): 0
Slave Interface: eth1
MII Status: up
Speed: 1000 Mbps
Duplex: full
Link Failure Count: 0
Permanent HW addr: 08:00:27:fe:6f:bf
Slave queue ID: 0
Slave Interface: eth2
MII Status: up
Speed: 1000 Mbps
Duplex: full
Link Failure Count: 0
Permanent HW addr: 08:00:27:34:17:c0
Slave queue ID: 0

To view the list of network interfaces and their IP address, enter the following command:

# ifconfig

As per the above output, bond0 is configured as master; eth1 and eth2 are configured as a slave.

Configure multiple IP addresses for bond0

cp /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-bond0 /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-bond0:1

Then edit the alias file /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-bond0:1,

vi /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-bond0:1

Modify the device name and IP address as shown below.

DEVICE=bond0:1
BOOTPROTO=none
ONBOOT=yes
IPADDR=192.168.1.201
NETWORK=192.168.1.0
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
USERCTL=no
BONDING_OPTS="mode=1 miimon=100"

Save and close the file. Restart network service to take effect the saved changes.

service network restart

Now list out the network interfaces and their IP address using the command:

ifconfig

You should see the alias bond0:1 has been created and up.

ExtremeXOS VLAN Konfiguration / Doku